Step two of Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model. Reflection and Discussion: Process Experiential Learning for Maximum Benefit
In part one of this series, we introduced David Kolb and his Experiential Learning model which we use to deliver experiential learning. The model has four distinct phases: 1) Experience, 2) Reflection and Discussion, 3) Conceptualization, and 4) Application. Here, we’ll focus on step two of Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model: reflection and discussion.
Virtually everything is better in a group (well, except highway driving)
Group reflection and discussion provides many valuable benefits to learners in addition to increased retention of the material. Research from the Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching shows that group discussion has a very positive impact on learning outcomes. This creates an environment where learners explain concepts, reinforcing the information. It also provides learners the opportunity to learn from a peer, who may be able to explain it in a way that makes more sense to them in their circumstances. For us, this takes place through facilitated dialogue with our Leadership Facilitator.
The two big questions to address during this portion of the experiential learning process are:
- “What happened?” This first question is about gathering facts and stating reality about the experience or situation.
- “Why did it happen?” This second question is aimed at analyzing the reasons why things happened, or unfolded the way they did.
Here’s a real-life example of reflection
Using an everyday example, say, you’re late for work. Your boss asks you, “Why were you late?” You answer: “Traffic caused me to be late.” And then you realize to yourself, “I was late every day this week.” (Hope this doesn’t sound too familiar.)
When you ask yourself the “why” of why it happened, you determine: “Traffic was the cause four of five days.” Once you pinpoint the reason “why” it happened, you can then begin to brainstorm possible solutions to avoid being late going forward (we’ll explore this more in Part III and IV of this series in “Conceptualization and Application”).
And an example from one of the country’s most storied battles
As an example from our leadership experiences, we’re going to look briefly at a key instance from Gettysburg that likely decided the fate of that battle, while becoming a huge turning point for the Civil War.
What happened? General Richard S. Ewell of the Confederate Army did not attack Cemetery Hill at Gettysburg.
Why did that happen? The military leader of the Confederacy, Robert E. Lee, had issued an order to General Ewell that was unclear. We have other examples of Lee’s orders being vague. General Ewell even asked for help and clarification. The truth is: Lee didn’t give Ewell help or clarification.
The bottom line: Ewell didn’t attack because of vague orders from his superior, a common occurrence in organizations. As leaders, we think we’re communicating and that the message has been clearly received. We all know the famous quote from George Bernard Shaw: “The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place.”
What’s the takeaway here? During reflection and discussion, participants are able to connect the lessons from the battle to their own experiences. Participants can then glean important insights and applications that they can take back home (enter Phases 3 & 4)
When thinking about this phase of the Kolb model, there are some important questions to consider:
- What experiences do I have in the regular course of business that I should be reflecting on that I am not?
- Is there a way to build time into the day or the week for this type of reflection?
- Could I or my team benefit from more discussion of problems and issues, and dig down to the root of “why” things happen(ed) the way they did?
It’s great to reflect and talk about what you’ve learned as a team, and in the next blog in this series, we’ll focus on the next step of the Kolb model, which is conceptualization. This is the step in which you take away concrete lessons from the experience you’ve been through. But even if you stop the formal process with reflection and discussion, it will almost guarantee greater results for your department or organization.
Interested in reading more about Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model? Click here for all the parts of this series!
P.S. When regular classroom learning, leadership retreats and the like don’t seem to be cutting it for your team maybe it’s time to give experiential learning a look.